The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

Diabetes belongs to the infamous group of lifestyle diseases. Formerly associated as a disease of seniors, today it is attacking increasingly younger people, even schoolchildren. In the world, over 400 million people suffer from diabetes, of which nearly 90% of cases are type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that up to half of the patients have not yet been diagnosed. It is worth knowing the symptoms of diabetes so that you can react in time and start treatment.

Type 2 diabetes - most often diagnosed

The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, also called adulthood diabetes or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The dominant symptom of this disease is exceeding normal blood glucose levels, which are accompanied by insulin resistance. Although the body produces a lot of it, tissues have reduced sensitivity to its effects. This condition is called insulin resistance.

Genetic predisposition, as well as modifiable factors, i.e. those on which we have a large influence, are responsible for the development of the disease. Although the propensity to develop the disease is hereditary, unhygienic lifestyle can be a trigger for diabetes. Indicated here include abdominal obesity, which promotes the development of insulin resistance, as well as:

  • increased triglycerides and cholesterol,
  • hypertension,
  • low physical activity
  • age (the risk of developing the disease increases with age),
  • chronic sleep disorders
  • going through gestational diabetes
  • smoking and drinking alcohol.

Genetic factors and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the family increase the risk of developing this disease. In accordance with the recommendations of the Polish Diabetes Association, people at risk should screen for diabetes every year. Healthy people who have reached the age of 45 should do this once every three years.

SEE MORE: Type 1 diabetes: causes, symptoms, and treatment

The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

The first signs of type 2 diabetes

Although doctors have been saying for many years that preventive examinations are a chance for early detection of a disease or pre-diabetes, patients rarely follow these recommendations. For this reason, the disease is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. This is also because the symptoms of type 2 diabetes are quite diverse and at the same time not very specific, so that the disease can develop unnoticed for many years. It is worth observing your body and react in advance.


An early sign of type 2 diabetes is dry mouth and, therefore, increased thirst or polydipsia. We can talk about increased thirst when we often have to hydrate, even at night, for no reason. People with polydipsia can drink up to 8 liters of fluid a day, but they still complain of dry mouth. Why is this happening? The body wanting to get rid of excess glucose somehow forces itself to drink to excrete sugar in the urine. High fluid intake is associated with frequent visits to the toilet, i.e. polyuria.

Chronic fatigue and drowsiness

Persistently high glucose levels, which the body cannot use for work, are manifested by fatigue and excessive sleepiness. These symptoms may increase especially after meals. When the body receives a high dose of carbohydrates from a meal, it needs time to balance it with the right amount of insulin. As a result, the patient is struggling with the so-called after meal hyperglycemia, which decreases after some time. Constant fatigue can affect mood swings, which over time obstruct daily activities.

SEE MORE: Type 1 diabetes: causes, symptoms, and treatment

Kilograms drop

With type 1 diabetes, patients observe a visible decrease in weight. The opposite is true for people with type 2 diabetes. High insulin levels increase appetite and stimulate the body to accumulate fat, which increases kilograms. This is despite the lack of changes in the current diet.

The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

Frequent infections and skin problems

Uncontrolled diabetes has an adverse effect on the immune system, which promotes the development of bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. The latter should be especially vigilant. High sugar (in the blood, urine) is an ideal environment for the development of fungi.

High sugar levels also affect the condition of your blood vessels. Weakened, they nourish the skin, which becomes sensitive, dry, and susceptible to damage.

Late symptoms of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can develop unnoticed for many years. Patients underestimate the early symptoms of the disease, taking them for symptoms of overwork or fatigue. Meanwhile, the disease progresses, and high blood glucose causes serious complications. Persisting hyperglycemia negatively affects the condition of blood vessels, being one of the factors in the development of heart and circulatory system diseases. Blood vessels in the eye may also be damaged, which affects vision. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy.

The nervous system also suffers at high glucose levels, and this condition is called diabetic neuropathy. Patients may experience muscle weakness, muscle cramps, tingling in limbs, and sensory loss.

Difficult wound healing is the result of disorders of the nervous system and weak blood vessels. This condition threatens the development of the so-called diabetic foot.

How to diagnose and treat diabetes?

Please consult your family physician for any alarming symptoms that may indicate developing diabetes. It directs us to basic blood tests, on the basis of which it will be possible to make a preliminary diagnosis. The fastest test is the fasting glucose test or the oral glucose load test (OGTT test).

SEE MORE: Type 1 diabetes: causes, symptoms, and treatment

The most important element of diabetes therapy is the modification of eating habits and lifestyle. In some people diagnosed with pre-diabetes, changing their diet and playing sports can lower blood glucose levels and prevent the development of the disease. In addition, you can reach for dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs for diabetics with white mulberry, Jerusalem artichoke, cinnamon, and inulin (e.g. Insulin, Topinulin Diabetes, Diabetes Caps, DOPPELHERZ AKTIV For diabetics).

The most important symptoms of diabetes. How to recognize the first symptoms of the disease?

If the disease is already advanced, it is necessary to start drug therapy. Metformin is the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes, which inhibits glucose production and reduces insulin resistance. It is particularly beneficial in diabetic patients with co-morbid obesity. In Poland, if metformin treatment fails, it is most often converted or combined with one of the sulfonylureas. Three drugs from this group are available: gliclazide, glimepiride, glipizide. In some cases, insulin treatment is required.

We are working on these most important topics on diabetes. It will be soon available on Daily Plus. Thanks.

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